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医学博士,副教授,擅长治疗各种原因引起的慢性肝病,尤其对自身免疫性肝炎有丰富的诊疗经验。参与国家“十二五”传染病防治科技重大专项课题3项,主持国际、国内多中心II期和III期肝病药物临床试验16项,发表SCI论文8篇。工作勤勤恳恳,任劳任怨,学习认认真真,戒骄戒躁,生活平平淡淡,一箪一瓢。拼搏的道路上既品尝了奋斗时的艰辛,更享受了收获时的快乐。不懈努力的我相信只有付出,才有收获。

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如果你还是个学生,恐怕会用得着  

2012-10-19 16:47:01|  分类: 业务学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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1.         hand down (财产、技术或知识)往下传,传给(后代)

pass down (世代)相传,传下去 The craft has been passed down over five generations.

pass on 传递,传给(下一代) This ring has been passed on in my family from mother to daughter.

2.         pass away ①去世I'm sorry to hear that your father passed away last night. ②结束,停止,消失,不再存在The storm should pass away before dark. ③度过(消磨)时间,(时间)过去,流逝 Conversation with friends soon passes an evening away.

pass by ①路过,经过I passed by your house last night at about ten o'clcok. (时间)过去,流逝Three years had passed by before she finally found a suitable job. ③忽略,回避,不理会,不理睬I cannot pass the matter by without making a protest.

pass over ①横过,越过,通过 A white cloud passed over the sky. ②宽恕Well, I'll pass it over this time, but don't do it again. ③忽视,回避(某事)I can't pass over this problem unnoticed. Sex is a subject he prefers to pass over in conversation. 去世 I had no news that your husband had passed over.

3.         die away (尤指声音、风、雨、光亮、势力、活动等)渐渐消失或减弱,逐渐停止 His anger died away. The laughter died away.

die down ①渐渐消失(平息,停止) The wind has died down quite a lot. The fire is dying down. (植物)枯萎,凋谢The dahlias died down when we had the first cold spell.

pass off ①逐渐消失(停止,终止) The storm should pass off before dark. ②把……冒充为……,假称…………He tried to pass his secretary off as his wife. ③回避,掩饰,不加理会Seeing that the story had given offence to some people, he attempted to pass it off with a joke. ④进行到最后,结束,完成 The meeting passed off very well.

pass for ①被认为是,被当做是 He speaks English well enough to pass for a native speaker. ②冒充,假装 He tried to pass for a gentleman, but everyone knew that he was only an upstart. 考上…… Have you heard that Smith passed for the key senior middle school?

4.         die out 灭绝,消失 Many species of animals are in danger of dying out. Gradually the roar died out and the night became quiet.

die off ①相继死亡The refugees were dying off from disease. ②绝种 The species is dying off.

5.         hand out 分发派送乱给(批评处分忠告) One of my jobs was to hand out the prizes.  I listened to a lot of people handing out a lot of advice.

pass out 昏倒,昏迷She passed out when she heard the bad news. (免费)散发,分发 The exhibitors at the trade fair passed out free samples to stimulate interest.

6.         draw out (火车、汽车等)离站、开出 ②拔出(牙、钉子、手枪等=pull up)to draw a nail out of a piece of wood to draw out a gun ③提取(存款等) (白昼)渐长 ⑤拟定(计划、草案等)The director drew out a plan for the work. ⑥使变长,拉长(金属丝等),延长The politician drew his speech out until everyone was bored.

draw up ①起草,拟定 ②使(车、马等)停下

lay down ①放下,放弃 ②制定,拟定(计划等) ③兴建,建造(或设计)船等,铺设(铁路等)This track was laid down last year, but now it is in need repair.

mark out 规划,制定 The directions of urban development have been marked out.

work out ①解决(问题),算出(答案) He worked out the problem at last. ②实现,产生预期的效果(=carry out) I really think that this interesting scheme will work out. ③制定出(方案、计划等) Students worked out a better method of learning English. ④消耗完(精力等),开采完(矿山等) The old mine had been worked out long ago.⑤理解(某人的)性格,了解(某人的)本性 No one in the office can work out the old man. (以工作)抵偿(债务) I don’t agree with him to work out the debt.

work up ①激发,激起 The book worked up our interest in the subject. ②逐步发展,逐步建立 work up your own plan. ③制定出,精心做出(计划、方案等)

7.         knock down ①击倒,打倒,撞到 ②拆卸,拆散(以便于装运) ③降价 I bought a dress that had been knocked down to half price.

knock over 打翻,撞倒

8.         hold on ①等一等 “May I talk to Mr Thomas?” “Hold on, your name please, did you make an appointment?” ②别挂断电话 Hold on! I go to see if he's in. ③持续 A fierce fight held on steadily a whole day. ④坚持,固守 He said he would hold on to the truth with his blood and life.

keep to ①坚持()He kept to his task till he finally finished it. ②遵守,信守,固守One should keep to one's promise.

abide by 遵守,信守 Above all, everyone must abide by the law.

9.         keep back 隐瞒 阻止,阻拦,阻挡 抑制,控制,克制(感情等)

keep down ①控制,抑制He couldn't keep down his anger. ②镇压The government tried to keep down the rebels. ③减缩to keep down expenditure

keep from  ①隐瞒She kept the truth from everyone. ②阻止The heavy rain can't keep me from going out. ③抑制I couldn't keep from laughing.

hold back ①抑制,控制 He couldn't hold back his anger. ②阻止,阻碍What held you back to take a week's holiday? ③畏缩不前,犹豫不定(=hang back)Hold natural and graceful, don't hold back before the guests. ④隐瞒 I dare say that he was holding something back from us.

hold in 抑制,控制(情绪) Don't hold your emotion in, cry if you want to.

hold down 抑制,压制

hang back 畏缩不前,犹豫不定

10.     hold off推迟,拖延;不接近,不靠近

keep off ①不接近,让开 keep off the grass The sun is shining on me. Please draw the curtain to keep it off. ②避开(话题等) We'd better keep off the sensitive topic.

11.     hang up ①挂断电话 ②搁置,拖延

hold off推迟,拖延;不接近,不靠近

hold up ①举起 He held up his hand stiffly. ②耽搁 The finals of the football was held up by a heavy storm. ③拦劫,抢劫 The bank was held up last night.

keep off ①不接近,让开 keep off the grass The sun is shining on me. Please draw the curtain to keep it off. ②避开(话题等) We'd better keep off the sensitive topic.

12.     leave behind 落后

fall behind 落后

hang behind 落后 Nobody hung behind after running 2 miles.

13.     hang onto

hold onto

14.     hand over/on (to) 交出,移交,转交

take over 接管,接手

15.     break down (机器、车辆等)发生故障 Their car broke down. ②坍塌,崩解,瓦解 The bridge broke down in last earthquake. (计划、谈判等)中断,中止,停顿,破裂,失败(= ~ up) Talks have broken down over the disputed territory. Talks with business leaders broke down last night. (情绪)失去控制(如突然大哭等) She broke down and wept at the sad news. (在身体或精神方面)垮掉,垮下来 His health has broken down because of too hard work. 分解 They actively break down fat compounds and lipids. You should break down your methods so that each method does a particular work. 打破,破除(偏见、障碍等);拆掉,拆毁,毁掉(门、窗等) I had to broken the door down because I lost the key.

go down ①下去 (日、月)西沉、落到地平线下As the sun went down the whole sky became suffused with a red glow. ③病倒,垮台 ④(计算机)停机(故障)

act up ①调皮,捣蛋 ②运作不正常,出毛病

16.     give out ①放出,发出(声音、光等)The radio is giving out a strange signal. ②散发,分发 I saw a man giving out handbills in the street. ③公布,宣布,发表 He gave out that they weren't coming. [口语](机器等)失灵,报废,停止运转 The old car finally gave out. ⑤用光,耗尽The fuel gave out.

go out ①出去 She was all dressed to go out, wearing outdoor clothes. ②熄灭 The fire has gone out. ③过时 Has the fashion for boots gone out? ④参加(社交活动、聚会、舞会等) She still goes out a great deal, even at seventy-five. 公布,发表 All the news have been gone out. (岁月等)结束,过去 The year 1976 went out gloomily.

17.     get about ①四处走动,走来走去 He’s getting about again after his accident. (谣言、新闻、故事等)传播,流传(通常系有口传) The news of his resignation soon got about.

get round ①四处走动,往来各地 (消息)传开 ③克服(困难),避开……,绕道走It's no use trying to get round paying the income tax! (终于有时间)做某事(to) He says he'll get round to it next week.

go about 四处走动,走来走去 I don’t go about much anymore. He often goes about with the beautiful girl. (谣言、消息等)传播,流传 A rumour is going about that he is falling in love with a woman who has a husband. (sth.) 着手做……,忙于…… I must go about my business. You are not going about this job correctly. (with sb.) ……相好,和……混在一起 He always goes about with his children.

18.     get ahead (在比赛中)领先,超过 Tom has got ahead of all the other boys in the class. ②获得成功,取得进步(进展) This job got ahead well.

go ahead ①前进,进步,进展 He’s going ahead fast. (毫不犹豫地)进行 After the rain stopped, the men went ahead with their work of digging up the street. 先走一步 You go ahead and tell them that I’ll arrive soon.

19.     break away (from)(= ~ out) 突然离开,强行逃脱 The criminal broke away from the policemen who were holding him.

break out (战争、疾病、灾难等)爆发;逃脱(= ~ away) He was 29 when war broke out. The two men broke out of their cells and cut through a perimeter fence.

get away 逃跑,逃脱,逃避(惩罚) Two of the prisoners got away.

burst out (of)闯出,冲出 He burst out of the room. 大声地说,咆哮地说 “Why don’t you behave?” she burst out. (战争、灾难、疾病等)突然爆发 The Second World War burst out finally. (v.+ing)突然……起来 She burst out crying/laughing.

20.     get out ①出去,离开 ②取出,拿出 (消息)走漏,泄露 (困难地)说出,竭力说出The speaker was so nervous that he could hardly get out more than a sentence. ⑤出版,发行We'll have to get this pamphlet out before next week.

give away ①出卖,背叛 ②泄露 ③送掉,颁发(奖品) John gave all his possessions away and became a monk. We have invited a famous actor to give away the prizes.

21.     drop off 睡着 He dropped off during the sermon. (客人)一一散去 His friends dropped off one by one. ③将……送到…… The bus will dropped you off at the station. (兴趣等)减弱

go off ①离开,离去 He went off in a great hurry. (疼痛)消失,(药物)失效I've got rather a headache, but it will probably go off when I've had a rest. (食物)变质,变坏 The cooking in the hotel has started to go off. The milk has gone off, turned sour. ④陷入(昏迷状态),睡着 Hasn’t the baby gone off? She went off into a faint. ⑤爆炸,发射The gun went off by accident. He fired but his pistol failed to go off. (事件)进行(良好等) How did the sport meeting go off?

fall asleep 睡着

22.     at large 一般地,普遍地;详尽地;自由自在地 The people at large support the policy of the open door. We wandered at large on the campus. He talked at large about his plan of writing a play for children.

at leisure 从容地,悠闲地

at liberty 自由地,随意地

at length 最后,终于;详细地 I plan to revisit this topic at length in the next few articles.

23.     attach to 依附,附属

adhere to 粘附/依附在……上;坚持;遵守

24.     add up (to) 总计(……);意指,暗示 These fees add up to rather large sums. The evidence all adds up to a case of murder.

amount to 相当于,总计为His debts amount to $5000.

get at ①够得着,拿得到 The books are locked up and I can’t get at them. ②发现真情(实情) ③意指,暗指 What are you getting at?

sum up ①合计,总计 These ten books sum up this year's production. Your marks sum up to 508. ②总结,概括 Then he summed up our opinions.

25.     go into ①进入(某空间、建筑物、状态等) The chairman went into the hall. The sick man went into coma. ②调查,研究 The policemen are going into the murder case. ③加入,投入,从事(某一行业) The mayor went into politics as a very young man.

inquire into 调查,研究

look into ①向里看,窥视 ②调查,研究The police are looking into the pearl robbery.  ③浏览(书刊等),快速查阅(书、资料等) He looked into several books to kill the time. ④对……作短暂访问(或参观),顺便进……看一看He looked into the shop on the way.

26.     give out ①放出,发出(声音、光等)The radio is giving out a strange signal. ②散发,分发 I saw a man giving out handbills in the street. ③公布,宣布,发表 He gave out that they weren't coming. [口语](机器等)失灵,报废,停止运转 The old car finally gave out. ⑤用光,耗尽The fuel gave out.

play out ①把(戏等)演完 The game was played out althongh the light was bad. ②结束The long struggle between the strikers and thier employers is not yet played out. ③使精疲力竭,耗尽,用光 I'm always played out by the time I finish work on Fridays.

run out 用光,用完,耗尽;到期,失效 They have run out of ideas. We're running out of time. When the lease ran out the family moved to Cleveland.

27.     go over ①复习,温习 Let’s go over the this chapter. ②仔细检查 We must go over the accounts carefully before we settle them. ③越过,渡过 We went over the mountain by ferry. We must go over that mountain before dark.

look over ①温习,复习 ②仔细检查

run over ①撞倒,碾过 A boy was run over by a truck and got killed immediately. ②溢出 The water is running over the edge of the bathtub. ③迅速浏览,扫视 The teacher ran over his notes before the lecture. ④复习,排练 She will run over her dance in the evening.

28.     attend on/upon 照顾,照料,伺候

attend to 注意,专心于……,致力于……;照料,照看;处理,办理 Evidence to date indicates that you attend to one idea at a time. Mother attended to the baby while I went to the dance. Don’t worry, everything will be attended to in good time!

care for 喜欢,喜爱;关心,照顾

look after 照顾,照料

look to ①照顾,照料Who will look to his board and lodging? ②注意,当心Look to it that all the windows are closed before you go out. ③依赖,依靠,指望,求助于He looked to his brother for help.

29.     let off ①宽恕,饶恕,免除(惩罚等) The teacher let him off for his honesty. ②把(气、水等)放出,放掉 We should let the steam off the boiler. ③放(烟火、炮等) 准许……暂时停止工作 The factory manager let the workers off for a week.

pass over ①横过,越过,通过 A white cloud passed over the sky. ②宽恕Well, I'll pass it over this time, but don't do it again. ③忽视,回避(某事) I can't pass over this problem unnoticed. Sex is a subject he prefers to pass over in conversation. 去世 I had no news that your husband had passed over.

30.     blow out ①熄灭(灯、火) The kerosene lamp blew out. (轮胎)爆裂The front tyre blew out.

go out ①出去 She was all dressed to go out, wearing outdoor clothes. ②熄灭 The fire has gone out. ③过时 Has the fashion for boots gone out? ④参加(社交活动、聚会、舞会等) She still goes out a great deal, even at seventy-five. 公布,发表 All the news have been gone out. (岁月等)结束,过去 The year 1976 went out gloomily.

put out ①熄灭,关掉Please put the light out when you leave the room. ②出版,发行,公布,发布The government has put out a statement denying these rumours. ③使发怒,使不高兴I wonder what she was so much put out by. ④生产The company puts out 2,000 computers every month.

turn out ①结果是……,证明是…… Evidences turned you out to be wrong. ②熄灭,关闭(灯、煤气等) He turned out the light when he left. ③赶出,逐出 The drunkard was turned out of the bar. ④辞退,解雇,罢免,开除 The boss decided to turn John out of his job. (作为工作成果)生产,制造,培养出 Plans have been made to turn out more products of high quality. Our university has turned out some world-famous scientists.

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